Excellent transformational leaders use authority and power to inspire and motivate people to trust and follow their example. ... Google Scholar 6. Hypothesis 3 tested whether the impact of a transformational leadership style on cognitive trust in the team leader is greater than its impact on cognitive trust among team members. Yu, H., Leithwood, K., & Jantzi, D. (2002). The path coefficient of collective efficacy to team performance is positive and significant (β = 0.676, p < .01). Leadership is a personal relationship in which one person directs, coordinates and supervises other in the performance of a common task. Eds. Members of a team without building cognitive trust among team members are not willing to put more efforts to coordinate their actions for performing the given task. Manuscript content on this site is licensed under Creative Commons Licenses. Transformational leadership is formally defined as “a leadership process that is systematic, consisting of purposeful and organized search for changes, systematic analysis, and the capacity to move resources from areas of lesser to greater productivity to bring about a strategic transformation.” 1 (p34) In today’s volatile healthcare environment, successful leaders must find innovative ways to transform their … Martin M. Chemers and Roya Ayman. The team leader plays a central role in determining group performance. The transformational leadership directly helped foster members’ cognitive trust in the team leader and cognitive trust among team member. Link , Google Scholar (2004) demonstrated that collective efficacy emerges from the team development and mediates the impact of transformational leadership on work outcomes. In attempting to understand the roles of cognitive trust and collective efficacy in the transformational leadership−team performance relationship, this study proposed five hypotheses with aims to examine how transformational leadership and cognitive trust affect collective efficacy, which therefore influences team performance. The research questions to be addressed in this study include the following: (a) how do transformational leadership and team cognitive trust influence collective efficacy, which in turn affects team performance; and (b) is team performance affected by a series of mediating processes? Table 1 shows that the values of AVE were all above the threshold of .5 (Fornell & Larcker, 1981). As depicted in Table 2, the showed t values and the corresponding z values for the Sobel test were all significant. Therefore, cognitive trust among team members is also a necessary element of team trust in exploring the formation of collective efficacy. 86-99). As discussed earlier, transformational leadership would help to foster team cognitive trust, which in turn would positively leverage collective efficacy. A sample item for cognitive trust in the team leader is, “I see no reason to doubt my team leader’s competence and preparation for the job.” A sample item for cognitive trust among team members is, “I see no reason to doubt my teammates’ competence and preparation for the job.” Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for cognitive trust in the team leader and for trust among team members were = .848 and .799, respectively, which exceeded the threshold of .7 (Nunnally, 1978). Team performance refers to the extent to which a team meets established objectives for quality, cost, and time (Hoegl & Gemuenden, 2001). All path coefficients are statistically significant at .01 level. Transformational leadership has been found to be positively associated with trust in the team leader, collective efficacy (e.g., Hoyt & Blascovich, 2003), and team performance (e.g., Hoyt & Blascovich, 2003; Jung & Avolio, 2000). They suggested that mutual trust among team members will facilitate team members to collaborate more effectively. Intellectual Stimulation: Transformational leaders not only challenge the status quo; they also encourage creativity among followers. Convergent validity was assessed by examining the average variance extracted (AVE) from the measures (Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson, & Tatham, 2006). A total of 27 teams (58.7%) were temporary in nature. The sample consisted of various team types from different organizations in Taiwan. In other words, effectiveness reflects the assessment of outcomes, while efficiency is the assessment of input. 1993. All of the path coefficients were significant. The number of people per team ranged from 3 to 35 with an average of 8.78 people. Companies that have thrived under transformational leadership include many of the most famous names in our culture today, including Apple, IBM, Microsoft, Walmart, and Google. His current research interests include: team innovation, team learning, and internet research. Several taxonomies for classifying leaders by style have been proposed in the literature. Therefore, future research should examine the development of affective and cognitive trust in the team leader and among team members longitudinally to clarify their relationship in the team development process. Individual consideration viewed at multiple levels of analysis: A multi-level framework for examining the diffusion of transformational leadership, Transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and team performance: A multilevel mediation model of trust, Trust in leadership: A multi-level review and integration, A satisfying leadership behaviour model for design consultants, A partial least squares latent variable modeling approach for measuring interaction effects: Results from a Monte Carlo simulation study and an electronic-mail emotion/adoption study, What makes teams work: Group effectiveness research from the shop floor to the executive suite, Trust in leadership: Meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice, Trust in leaders: Existing research and emerging issues, Impact of transformational leadership on follower development and performance: A field experiment, Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error, Personality, affect, and behavior in groups, The efficacy advantage: Factors related to the formation of group efficacy, A meta-analysis of team-efficacy, potency and performance: Interdependence and level of analysis as moderators of observed relationships, Teamwork quality and the success of innovative projects: A theoretical concept and empirical evidence, Transformational and transactional leadership in virtual and physical Environments, Estimating within-group interrater reliability with and without response bias, Five-factor model of personality and transformational leadership, Opening the black box: An experimental investigation of the mediating effects of trust and value congruence on transformational and transactional leadership, Transformational leadership in work groups: The role of empowerment, cohesiveness, and collective-efficacy on perceived group performance, The impact of knowledge coordination on virtual team performance over time, Removing the shadow of suspicion: The effects of apology versus denial for repairing competence-versus integrity-based trust violations, Exploring the relationship between cohesive and collective efficacy in rugby teams, Collective trust and collective action: The decision to trust as a social decision, Conducting interorganizational research using key informants, Affect-and cognition-based trust as foundations for interpersonal cooperation in organizations, Initial trust formation in new organizational relationships. Transformational leadership is an empirically based form of leadership whose basic tenets and approach make it appealing for greater adoption in health care settings. For instance, transformational leadership and emotional intelligence may align to support inspirational leadership that will translate into successful results (Leban & Zulauf, 2004). Kanawattanachai and Yoo (2007) indicated that cognitive trust grounded in the beliefs regarding others’ ability and reliability to accomplish a task (Kanawattanachai & Yoo, 2007). the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Search across a wide variety of disciplines and sources: articles, theses, books, abstracts and court opinions. (, Kumar, N., Stern, L. W., Anderson, J. C. (, McKnight, D. H., Cummings, L. L., Cherany, N. L. (, Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Moorman, R., Fetter, R. (, Shamir, B., House, R. J., Arthur, M. B. The average Rwg coefficients of cognitive trust in the team leader, cognitive trust among team members, collective efficacy, and team performance were .970, .966, .972, and .971, respectively. Hypothesis 5: A transformational leadership will have an indirect positive effect, mediated through cognitive trust among team members on collective efficacy. The Sobel test (1982) was used to examine the mediation effect of team cognitive trust. Efficiency refers to the adherence to schedules and budgets. Data collected from 39 teams find that team cognitive trust as two process variables involves a transformational leadership process in which cognitive trust in the team leader and cognitive trust among team members mediate the impact of this leadership style on collective efficacy. “Transformational Leadership: A Response to Critiques.” InLeadership Theory and Research: Perspectives and Directives. This article takes one of the best-articulated and promising models, transfor… By continuing to browse The inability to resolve such basic disagreements reflects the need for knowledge based on empirical tests of well-developed models in public sector settings (Trottier, Van Wart, and Wang 2008, 319; Van Wart 2003, 214). Wen-Wei Chuang is a Master of the Department of Information Management, National Central University, Taiwan. Thus, higher cognitive trust among team members would help enhance team’s collective efficacy. Confirmatory factor analysis was first conducted to assess the measurement model. This study confirmed the two elements of team cognitive trust, which is cognitive trust in the team leader and cognitive trust among team members. Another group process variable that may emerge in the transformational leadership process is collective efficacy (Zhang, Tsui, & Wang, 2011). The result of the study provided empirical support for our proposed model and further confirmed the important role of team cognitive trust in the transformational leadership process. This implies that transformational leaders can facilitate interdependent work among group members and encourage members to work together, help team members establish a sense of cognitive trust, and foster positive feelings among themselves. First, one author translated the original instrument into Chinese. Therefore, another author screened and corrected the error of the translation. The result revealed that cognitive trust among team members has stronger positive impacts on collective efficacy than cognitive trust in the team leader does. When a team leader displays a transformational leader style, team members will perceive a high level of team cognitive trust and therefore will be more likely to perceive to others’ ability and reliability to perform a task (Kanawattanachai & Yoo, 2007; McAllister, 1995). Hypothesis 4: A transformational leadership will have an indirect positive effect, mediated through cognitive trust in the team leader on collective efficacy. The results indicated that cognitive trust in the team leader mediated the impact of transformational leadership on collective efficacy (z value for the Sobel test = 4.837, p < .01) and the effect of transformational leadership on collective efficacy was also significantly mediated by cognitive trust among team members (z value for the Sobel test = 4.869, p < .01). Team cognitive trust therefore may play a mediating role in the relation between transformational leadership and collective efficacy. Further research may explore the roles of these factors in the transformational leadership processes. Table 2. Team Performance in a Transformational Leadership Process, Transformational Leadership and Team Performance, http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/, http://www.uk.sagepub.com/aboutus/openaccess.htm, Akgün, Keskin, Byrne, and Imamoglu (2007), Gully, Beaubien, Incalcaterra, & Joshi, 2002, Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman, & Fetter, 1990, Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson, & Tatham, 2006, Transformational Leadership and Job Performance: The Mediating Role of Work Engagement. Nguni S, Sleegers P, Denessen E. Transformational and transactional leadership effects on teachers’ job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior in primary schools: The Tanzanian case. As shown in Table 1, the composite reliability coefficients were all above .6, as suggested by Fornell and Larcker (1981). Out of the 46 teams’ interrater reliability coefficients for constructs, 7 did not exceed the threshold levels of reliability (.7) as suggested by George (1990) and were dropped from subsequent analysis. Discriminant validity was confirmed by looking at the square root of AVE. A sample item for charisma was, “The project team leader makes the team members enthusiastic about the project.” A sample item for individualized consideration was, “The project team leader finds out what I want and helps me to get it.” A sample item for intellectual stimulation was, “The project team leader enables me to think about old problems in new ways.” A sample item for inspirational motivation was, “The project team leader stimulates enthusiasm among project team members for the work of group.” Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was = .975, which exceeds the recommended level of .70 (Nunnally, 1978). According to Bass (1985), transformational leaders exert influence on subordinates by broadening and elevating followers’ goals and providing them with the confidence to go beyond specified, minimally acceptable expectations. Her research interests include team dynamics, ERP, organizational change, virtual team and virtual community learning and performance. In summary, this study helps to describe the two referents of cognitive trust as two separate process variables in the transformation leadership processes. (, Gully, S. M., Beaubien, J. M., Incalcaterra, K. A., Joshi, A. When team members perceive a high level of trust in their interactions, they tend to devote more effort to cooperative behaviors (Kramer, Brewer, & Hanna, 1996). However, the relationship between these factors has not been fully scrutinized, especially in a project team context. Some may even argue that—led by President Joseph Aoun—Northeastern University is operating under a transformational leadership model. Two independent PLS models exemplified by the SmartPLS 2.0 bootstrap procedure with 200 re-samples were conducted to generate the necessary t values. Medical trainees at all levels and their supervisors should be trained in the principles and application of transformational leadership. Nevertheless, relatively little empirical research appeared to have investigated the mediating role of team cognitive trust in the transformational leadership-collective efficacy relationship. The path of cognitive trust among team members to collective efficacy was significant (β = 0.504, p < .01), whereas the path from cognitive trust in the team leader to collective efficacy was also significant (β = 0.338, p < .01) but smaller than the path from cognitive trust among team members to collective efficacy. The transformational leadership model has been studied and applied to organizations such as schools, the military, hospitals, and banks. If a team builds stronger cognitive trust among team members, members of the team are willing to put more efforts to work together and become more confident in the group’s ability to successfully complete a task. Transformational leadership theory: Using levels of analysis to determine boundary conditions. 2006;17(2):145–77. Accumulated literatures have evidenced the causal linkage between transformational leadership and team cognitive trust (e.g., Zhu et al., 2013). For example, Webber’s (2008) study exploring the development of affective and cognitive trust in student project teams revealed that affective trust emerges early in the early stage of team development, whereas cognitive trust does not. The transformational leadership style helps relieve nurses’ burnout symptoms. Personnel Psychology. AvolioTransformational leadership and organizational culture. Transformational leadership comprises four components (Avolio & Bass, 1991; Bass & Avolio, 1990b): idealized influence is the degree to which the leader instills values, beliefs, respect, a strong sense of purpose, and collective sense of mission; intellectual stimulation is the ability to accept different perspectives and stimulate thinking; individualized consideration is appreciating each … With the growing need to acquire a sustainable competitive advantage, many organizations have moved toward flattened hierarchies and self-managed teams (Antoni & Hertel, 2009). Recent studies on group research have highlighted the development of cognitive trust and affective trust in the team process (Webber, 2008; Zhu et al., 2013). Cognitive trust refers to individual beliefs about peer reliability and dependability (McAllister, 1995). (, Arnold, K. A., Barling, J., Kelloway, E. K. (, Braun, S., Peus, C., Weisweiler, S., Frey, D. (, Burke, C. S., Sims, D. E., Lazzara, E. H., Salas, E. (, Cheung, S. O., Ng, S. T., Lam, K. C., Yue, W. M. (, Chin, W. W., Marcolin, B. L., Newsted, P. R. (, Dvir, T., Eden, D., Avolio, B. J., Shamir, B. He received his PhD from the Department of Information Management, National Central University, Taiwan. The average duration for a team was 32.5 months, with a range of 4 to 120 months. A. Article Download PDF View Record in Scopus Google Scholar. Although existing studies have already shown that transformational leadership is crucial in facilitating knowledge sharing among team members, our understanding on the underlying mechanism is largely limited. Hypothesis 1 examined the association between collective efficacy and team performance. Sosik, Avolio, and Kahai (1997) found that transformational leadership positively affects the level of creative output generated by team members. The variance inflation factor (VIF) that measures whether the collinearity existed was assessed. Academy of Management Journal , 49: 327–340. Lean Library can solve it. Its influence on collective efficacy is proposed to be weaker than cognitive trust among team members is. When individuals hold strong collective efficacy, they are likely to devote more effort to achieving goals (Bandura, 1986). Transformational leadership is defined as the one that creates valuable and positive changes in its followers. Kumar, Stern, and Anderson (1993) indicated that data collected from a single informant were highly correlated with team consensual data. Dirks and Skarlicki (2004) found that a team leader with effective transformational leadership style was beneficial to gain subordinates’ trust. (, Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L. (, Kim, P. H., Ferrin, D. L., Cooper, C. D., Dirks, K. T. (, Kramer, R. M., Brewer, M. B., Hanna, B. Cognitive trust in the team leader, however, is members’ confidence in the team leader. Studies have indicated that collective efficacy has a positive impact on team performance (Gully, Beaubien, Incalcaterra, & Joshi, 2002) and that it relates to group performance in different contexts, including education (Parker, 1994), sports (Kozub & McDonnell, 2000), and organizations (Gibson, 2003). Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. Future research may avoid this by collecting multiple measures of team performance, such as supervisor’s evaluations of team performance or a team’s key performance indicator (KPI). A larger sample size should be included in the future research to capture the effects of team size and task type. Finally, the first author administered a panel meeting to refine the translation. Model 1 included two paths from transformational leadership (the independent variable) to cognitive trust in the team leader and cognitive trust among team members (two mediators). Team types included IS (information systems) integration (12), quality improvement (11), R&D (7), business management (5), customer service (3), production (1), sales (1), and others (6). School Effectiveness School Improv. Manifestation of emotional intelligence and Transformational leadershi... Trust and performance in business teams: a meta-analysis. That is, through team cognitive trust, transformational leadership will help foster a team’s collective efficacy and leads to the distal outcome: team performance. Login failed. Unlike previous studies, our results show that leveraging cognitive trust in the team leader is necessary but not sufficient for better proximal collective efficacy, which in turn facilitates distal team performance. Five items measuring collective efficacy was adapted from Jung and Sosik (2002). According to Chin et al.’s (2003) suggestion, the sample size requirement for the PLS approach should equal to or above 10 times the largest numbers of structural paths directed toward a particular construct. We suggest that team cognitive trust may simultaneously emerge in the interaction among team members and leaders as well as during the teamwork process. The target scope of the study primarily focused on how cognitive trust and collective efficacy intervene in the transformational leadership−team performance relationship at team level. In the team process, transformational leadership is beneficial to the establishment of team cognitive trust (Zhu et al., 2013). The Results for Testing Mediating Effect. A multilevel investigation of the transformational leadership in relation to trust, efficacy, identification, and cohesion may provide our richer understandings of how team performance and follower outcomes could be achieved by series of mediating process. In conclusion, the findings offer theoretical and empirical valuable insights into how transformational leadership impacts team performance through various mediating variables. Second, we characterized team cognitive trust using two referents, cognitive trust in the leader and cognitive trust among team members. Under transformational leadership, team’s cognitive trust and collective efficacy may evolve during the team development and serve as process variables that explain the distal team performance. Chipunza and Gwarinda (2010) studied how the transformational leadership model impacted employees of two institutions of higher education in South Africa involved in a … We theorized and validated the causal relationships between transformational leadership, cognitive trust, collective efficacy, and the team’s performance as a chain. The items wordings were refined to adapt to the team’s context. The low response rate of 28.75% and the small sample size of 39 teams in the present study limited this possibility. Collective efficacy is defined as “a group’s shared belief in its conjoint capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to produce given levels of attainment” (Bandura, 1997, p. 477). 5-Point Likert-type scale ( from 1 = strongly agree ) consensual data assess measurement. 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