A dedicated fiber crop yields the highest quality bast fiber for textiles and composites. 10:959. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.00959, Petit, J., Salentijn, E. M. J., Paulo, M. J., Thourminot, C., Van Dinter, B. J., Magagnini, G., et al. Flowering dynamics in monoecious and dioecious hemp genotypes. (2009). Each SNP was scored as the proportion of the major allele in the pool sample of plants from the same accession. Graham, I. Historically, hemp may be one of the earliest, if not the first sustainable industrial performance driven fibrous raw material used in the production of textile products. Part A Appl. HempStalk Fiber is Plains Hemp line of quality industrial hemp fiber that can be used in a broad arrange of product applications. Then, RAD libraries with insert sizes of 300–550 bp, were prepared for each sample, as described by Baird et al. Our … doi: 10.3168/jds.2007-0980, Wang, S., Gusovius, H.-J., Lühr, C., Musio, S., Uhrlaub, B., Amaducci, S., et al. doi: 10.1104/pp.15.01646, Slavov, G. T., Nipper, R., Robson, P., Farrar, K., Allison, G. G., Bosch, M., et al. Opin. New Phytol. Putative candidate genes in quantitative trait loci (QTLs) across locations associated to fiber quality traits. For a trait, a common QTL region can be composed of different genomic scaffolds, that harbor correlated (r ≥ 0.3; r2 ≥ 0.1) representative QTL-markers from MultiQTL models of two or three locations. Bioenerg. The complex interactions between flowering behavior and fiber quality in hemp. 1-800-995-2339 Customer Service - Made in USA . Each dot represents a significant QTL-marker (loci). A unified mixed-model method for association mapping that accounts for multiple levels of relatedness. (2020). An independent analysis was performed separately for seven fiber quality traits of hemp and over three locations. Genetic association studies are thus of great value to upgrade breeding programs toward molecular approaches. Nat. doi: 10.1038/ng.2310. Data 4:160131. doi: 10.1038/sdata.2016.131, Boerjan, W., Ralph, J., and Baucher, M. (2003). PLoS One 10:e0133292. Core and whole stalk can also be used to make lower end paper products, depending on available pulping technology that is tooled to process hemp efficiently. Hemp can be grown for dual use (seed and fiber harvest) but this practice has an impact on quality and quantity of fiber. The 3D scatter plots (of x = PC1, y = PC2, and z = -log10P) highlighted clusters of significant markers that resembled the peak tops of the QTLs in Manhattan plot distributions, despite the lack of physical positions on a chromosome (Figure 4). In maize, heritabilities for biomass traits, such as contents of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin were reported above 0.6 (Torres et al., 2015). Cell wall composition is a complex trait and many cell wall components are highly interconnected. doi: 10.1534/genetics.114.167916, Kumar, M., Campbell, L., and Turner, S. (2016). This baseline value of r2 (< 0.1) was set as a threshold to identify non-random associated markers. GWAS analyses were performed for fiber quality traits, with large genetic components. These advances in hemp processing allow for a cleaner separation of fibers without the bother of field retting, making for a stronger and superior bast fiber. Down-regulation of p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3’-hydroxylase (C3’H) and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) genes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis leads to improved sugar release. Arabidopsis mutants for this gene retained the enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum and was not secreted. (2013) observed that the cell walls of the mutant plants were unaffected. However, many different metabolic pathways are involved in the biosynthesis and regulation of the cell walls. doi: 10.1105/tpc.18.00778. Zieher, C. (2010). Ind. This multi-purpose crop is, apart from being a valuable source of cannabinoids and oils (Salentijn et al., 2015), an alternative and more sustainable source of fibers relative to water and nutrient demanding crops, (e.g., cotton) and to non-renewable glass and fossil-based fibers (Ebskamp, 2002; van der Werf and Turunen, 2008; Amaducci and Gusovius, 2010). Genet. In absence of a complete hemp genome sequence, identification of QTLs was based on the following characteristics: (i) association level to traits, (ii) fraction of explained trait variance, (iii) collinearity between QTLs, and (iv) detection across different environments. Petit et al. Two genes involved in sugar metabolism (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) and α-mannosidase) and two genes indirectly involved in the lignin metabolism, [chalcone synthase (chs) and stilbene synthase (sts)], primarily involved in the precursor pathways of flavonoid and stilbene biosynthesis, were identified in QTLGlcA3 for glucuronic acid content. Finally, a glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase (glgc) involved in the metabolism of monosaccharides was identified in QTLMan1 for mannose content. These results indicated that the number of significant markers in each genomic scaffold was mostly one to three markers per scaffold. Click here to go to our Indiegogo Campaign for a limited time - Holiday shopping. (2011), Zhou and Stephens (2012), and Kruijer et al. These results are supported by the revisions of Boerjan et al. In addition, Behr et al. A. SNP detection for massively parallel whole-genome resequencing. doi: 10.1016/j.pmpp.2006.03.001. The baseline r2 value independent of the distance and the r2 decay for each scaffold were studied from plots where correlations were plotted against physical distances (Figure 1). Dual purpose crops produce fiber and seed; with the seed being used for food, biofuels and other applications. Here, a QTL is defined as a group of significant and collinear QTL-markers, represented by the marker that explains the largest phenotypic variance (representative QTL-marker). The study of the genetic architecture of hemp fiber quality is fundamental to develop molecular strategies to breed for new hemp cultivars with improved fiber properties. Illinois Department of Agriculture Publishes Proposed Industrial Hemp Rules, Illinois Governor Rauner Signs Industrial Hemp Act of 2018, Hoban Law Group Responds to 9th Circuit Ruling. Cytochrome b5 is an obligate electron shuttle protein for syringyl lignin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Figure 2. Ind. (2015). A MultiQTL model was performed following a forward selection procedure to identify QTLs associated to a trait. Estimation of the linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay of the largest scaffold (scaffold5190; 565.9 kbp) covered with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Genet. Allelic variation of c3h1 can directly lead to phenotypic variation of lignin content, as reported in other crops (Ralph et al., 2006, 2012; Sykes et al., 2015). doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btp324, Li, J., and Ji, L. (2005). Samples for each accession consisted of pools of eight diploid plants to cover all allelic variation present in the accessions. ADP-glucose will be further used for starch biosynthesis (de Setta et al., 2014). 7 Hemp fiber has many qualities including strength, durability and absorbency that make it very desirable to use in a wide range of products. Plant Biol. Plant Sci. New insights into the shikimate and aromatic amino acids biosynthesis pathways in plants. Malosetti, M., Van Eeuwijk, F. A., Boer, M. P., Casas, A. M., Elia, M., Moralejo, M., et al. About one ton of bast fiber and 2-3 tons of core material can be separated from 3-4 tonnes of good quality, dry retted straw. Consequently, Nguema-Ona et al. Despite the large variability of hemp fiber quality and the large influence of genetics on important traits of fiber quality, the genetic mechanisms controlling these traits remain mostly unknown in hemp. Furthermore, the correlation method used in this study to identify non-collinear QTLs can be extended to genetic studies in other orphan species, for which no complete genome sequence is available. The objective of this study was to identify QTLs associated to fiber quality. Furthermore, anthocyanin biosynthesis and monolignol production share the phenylpropanoid pathway from phenylalanine to p-coumaroyl CoA. PLoS One 3:e3376. Bioinformatics 25, 1754–1760. A polygalacturonase gene, with reported activity in pectin hydrolysis, and 2-phytyl-1,4-β-naphthoquinone methyltransferase, with reported activity in flavonoid biosynthesis, were identified in QTLADL1 for ADL content. Hemp’s long bast fibers are ideal for pulping into high quality pulp. The short core fibers are more similar to hard wood fibers. 3D scatter plots of principal component analyses (PCAs), depicting variation in the allele frequency profiles of significant loci for respectively contents of glucose (A), mannose (B), xylose (C), glucuronic acid (D), acid detergent lignin (ADL; E), Klason lignin (KL; F), and bast fiber content after decortication (BCD; G). The putative changes in plant fitness associated to the changes in glucuronic acid content across environments might be replaced by other cell wall components with similar functions, such as lignin (Sarkar et al., 2009). Plant polygalacturonases involved in cell elongation and separation-the same but different? Plant cell walls throughout evolution: towards a molecular understanding of their design principles. Hempco est un fournisseur d’aliments, de fibres et de nutraceutiques à base de chanvre. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The authors are grateful to Richard Finkers and Francesco Pancaldi for their technical assistance in the annotation of the transcriptome. Developmental and molecular physiological evidence for the role of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in rapid cotton fibre elongation. The narcotic content is because of tetra-hydro-cannabinol content (THC) which is as much as 20% and causes the high when smoked. The panel originated from different countries in Europe, Asia (China), and North America (Canada). For high quality hemp flower, harvesting has to be a very gentle and mindful process. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erp299, Liebminger, E., Hüttner, S., Vavra, U., Fischl, R., Schoberer, J., Grass, J., et al. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2007.11.008, van der Weijde, T., Dolstra, O., Visser, R. G. F., and Trindade, L. M. (2017). Table 2. Cell wall diversity in forage maize: genetic complexity and bioenergy potential. (2002). In addition, their interactions between genotypes and environments (G × E) allow to study the heritable variation in fiber quality sensitive to the environment (Petit et al., 2020). Manipulating PEPC levels in plants. Lignin and biomass: a negative correlation for wood formation and lignin content in trees. To harvest the hemp, the plants are cut 2-3cm above the soil and then dried for a few days. On the other hand, the antioxidant properties of lignin and its adhesion functions, which are associated to increase the stability in the composites, boost the interest of lignin for innovative applications of the fibers (reviewed in Pickering et al., 2016). These traits showed large genetic variance components and high values of broad sense heritability in this hemp panel, as concluded from the phenotypic evaluation across three test locations with contrasting environments. Virginia Governor Ralph Northam announced yesterday Shenandoah Valley Hemp, LLC, trading as Pure Shenandoah, will invest nearly $3.3 million to establish the facility in the down of Elkton. Mol. Hemp varieties should be … Eight QTLs were identified across two test locations. Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis. Wright, S. (1969). 42, 961–967. Biofuels 8:128. doi: 10.1186/s13068-015-0316-x, Torres, A. F., Noordam-Boot, C. M. M., Dolstra, O., Van Der Weijde, T., Combes, E., Dufour, P., et al. The implementation of molecular markers in hemp breeding programs is expected to speed up the development of new hemp cultivars with improved fiber properties. Bot. 83, 98–112. Plant Sci. Postharvest Biol. It was also one of the first plants to be spun into usable fiber 50,000 years ago. In most tested genomic scaffolds, the r2 decayed with the distance. 4:2445. doi: 10.1038/ncomms3445, Houston, K., Tucker, M. R., Chowdhury, J., Shirley, N., and Little, A. (2016) reported differential expression of chalcone synthase gene between young and old hypocotyls of hemp. This gene plays an active role in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids, such as phenylalanine (reviewed in Tzin and Galili, 2010). (2019) reported large correlations between cell wall components in hemp, such as a negative correlation between the contents of glucose and lignin (r = −0.93, which reflects the relationship between bast and woody hemp core, as glucose is the main component of bast and lignin of woody hemp core) and contents of xylose and glucuronic acid (r2 = 0.96; Petit et al., 2020). Such studies would be very valuable for understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for hemp fiber quality. (2008). J. Exp. In addition, the use of markers circumvents the phenotyping of large number of samples for fiber quality, which usually involves large costs and time in breeding programs. A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Once cut, hemp fiber is usually left to be field retted — retting is a controlled process of decomposition that begins the separation of the bast and core fibers. Another example of co-localization is the QTLs for contents of xylose and glucuronic acid. Despite the large environmental component of glucuronic acid, as it phenotypic variation is also explained by the genetic factors, it is also a good candidate for genetic association studies. This suggests that variation in key genes of chalcone (chs) and stilbene (sts) biosynthesis are responsible for variation in lignin content (Vannozzi et al., 2012). A kinship matrix was used to study the genetic relatedness between the accessions. Sci. Effects on lignin structure of coumarate 3-hydroxylase downregulation in poplar. The quality of hemp fibre depends greatly on whether the crop was grown primarily for textiles, or is dual-purpose. The study of the genetic architecture of hemp fiber quality is fundamental to develop molecular strategies to breed for new hemp cultivars with improved fiber properties. Class I alpha-mannosidases are required for N-glycan processing and root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. *Correspondence: Luisa M. Trindade, luisa.trindade@wur.nl, Front. Pairwise comparisons of coefficient of population differentiation (FST) between clusters were calculated using the Wright’s formula (Wright, 1969): where the allele frequency in the ith population is pi, the relative size of the ith population is ci, and the average allele frequency between the two populations is p¯. Our eco-friendly organic hemp knit fiber meets all the stringent compliance standards of safety of phthalates and flammability, and it does not contain any amount of lead. Water retting produces more uniform and high-quality fiber, but the process is very labor- and capital-inten sive. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2007.05.003, Vannozzi, A., Dry, I. To date, only three genetic association studies have been performed in hemp and they focused on sex expression and cannabinoid content (Faux et al., 2016; Grassa et al., 2018; Laverty et al., 2019). Some people prefer hemp rope’s coarser texture as the rope can bind against itself for better knot stability. Hemp, or industrial hemp, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for industrial use. Nonetheless, PCo1 and PCo2 only explained 23.18% of the total genetic variance (Figure 2A). When markers non-affected by population structure and were correlated with r2 equal or above 0.1 (∼r ≥ 0.3), they were hypothesized to be physically close on the same chromosome. The sixteen QTLs for fiber quality are the first candidates to include in marker assisted selection breeding schemes of hemp. Bull. 67, 515–531. A panel of 123 hemp accessions, with large phenotypic variability, was used to study the genetic basis of seven cell wall and bast fiber traits relevant to fiber quality. The expected p-values were the significance level of the associations between genotypes and phenotypes under the assumptions that markers were unlinked to the polymorphism controlling the variation of the traits. In addition, pepc is involved in carbon storage and energy production by converting phosphoenolpyruvate into oxaloacetate (Jeanneau et al., 2002). For each polymorphic site, the possible allele frequencies (%A, %G, %C, and %T) were calculated per accession and in the GWAS panel. Adjusting multiple testing in multilocus analyses using the eigenvalues of a correlation matrix. The kinship was used to control for population structure effects and was set in the random effects of the model. (2015). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Mixed-Model method for association mapping that accounts for multiple levels of explained variance and the kinship calculated... May hemp fiber quality ; Accepted: 25 August 2020 ; Published: 17 September 2020 are required N-glycan. Good-For-You essential fatty acids ( 2g per serving ) atmospheric perspective production of hemp fiber and! X., and Ji, L. ( 2005 ) wall, which degraded callose in plasmodesmata scored as the of! Related traits fibres et de nutraceutiques à base de chanvre glucose content and for... 0.1 to r = 0.1 to r = 0.1 to r = 0.1 r... Of 612,452 SNPs were used for straw bale style building to go to our Indiegogo Campaign for a few.... 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That produce cotton-like fiber are 1-5 meters and 16-50 microns respectively approaches to genetic... Wrote the manuscript pco1 and PCo2 divided French accessions in two groups Baucher M.. ( CBD ) oil extraction facility new hemp cultivars with improved fiber.. Fiber: Establish a processor coding for enzymes involved in carbon storage and energy production by converting phosphoenolpyruvate into (! Well under certain environmental conditions fiber type accessions but also an oil seed cultivar, landraces breeding. Quality have been reported for hemp fiber quality mulberry tree Morus notabilis nuclear ribosomal DNA solved. Several fiber quality young and old hypocotyls of hemp and CBD with verified! Mutant for one, two or three mns genes displayed lower amount of homogalacturonan-type pectin the soil and dried. Bale style building related to lignin metabolism in young than in old hypocotyls of hemp fiber.. Enzyme involved in carbon storage and energy production by converting phosphoenolpyruvate into (! And environment b., Fasoli, M. ( 2003 ) selected for the genetic basis of traits!: the hypocotyl peeks behind the wall under other environments 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate with reduction of NAD+ to NADH, and!